Dordia Anindita Rotinsulu. KAJIAN KEBERADAAN VIRUS AVIAN INFLUENZA PADA UNGGAS DI PASAR BURUNG PRAMUKA, JAKARTA. B253100021. Tesis. 2013. Mikrobiologi Medik. Pembimbing: Surachmi Setiyaningsih, Abdulgani Amri Siregar

KAJIAN KEBERADAAN VIRUS AVIAN INFLUENZA PADA UNGGAS DI PASAR BURUNG PRAMUKA, JAKARTA

(Investigation of Avian Influenza Virus on Birds in Pramuka Bird Market, Jakarta)

DORDIA ANINDITA ROTINSULU, SURACHMI SETIYANINGSIH, ABDULGANI AMRI SIREGAR

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RINGKASAN

Penyakit Avian Influenza (AI) atau flu burung yang disebabkan oleh virus influenza tipe A dari keluarga Orthomyxoviridae telah menimbulkan dampak global yang besar, baik di bidang kesehatan, sosial maupun ekonomi. Virus AI dapat menginfeksi beragam unggas maupun mamalia sehingga pasar burung sebagai tempat bertemunya manusia dan unggas berpotensi menjadi sarana penyebaran virus AI antar unggas atau penularan dari unggas ke manusia. Mengingat peran unggas dalam penyebaran virus AI dan banyaknya spesies unggas di Indonesia, maka penelitian mengenai keberadaan virus AI pada unggas, terutama di Pasar Burung Pramuka sebagai pasar burung terbesar di DKI Jakarta sangat diperlukan.

Secara umum penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji keberadaan virus AI pada berbagai spesies unggas di Pasar Burung Pramuka Jakarta. Secara khusus, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1) mengkaji keberadaan virus AI dan H5 dari sampel usap orofaringeal, usap kloakal, dan feses (kontaminasi lingkungan) dari berbagai spesies unggas menggunakan metode real time Reverse TranscriptasePolymerase Chain reaction (rRT-PCR); (2) mendeteksi keberadaan antibodi terhadap virus AI (H5) pada berbagai spesies unggas dengan uji hemaglutinasi inhibisi (HI); dan (3) mengetahui pengaruh cuaca dan asal geografis unggas dengan keberadaan virus AI.

Selama bulan April sampai dengan September 2011, jumlah sampel lapangan yang berhasil dikoleksi dari Pasar Burung Pramuka, Jakarta adalah sebanyak 862 sampel dari 28 famili dan 96 spesies unggas yang berbeda. Sampel tersebut terdiri atas 649 sampel feses, 114 sampel usap kloakal, dan 99 sampel usap orofaringeal. Dari sampel lapangan, sebanyak 7 dari 649 sampel feses (1.08%) positif AI. Namun, tidak ada sampel usap orofaringel dan usap kloakal yang positif AI. Sampel feses yang positif terdeteksi pada empat spesies unggas, yaitu tiga ekor burung Kacer (Copsychus saularis, famili Turdidae), dua ekor burung Kacamata (Zosterops palpebrosus, famili Zostropidae), satu ekor burung Trucuk (Pycnonotus goiavier, famili Pycnotidae), dan satu ekor burung Robin (Leiothrix lutea, famili Sylviidae).

Selain sampel lapangan, selama bulan April sampai dengan September 2011, sebanyak 178 unggas dari 21 famili dan 47 spesies yang berbeda dibeli daripasar yang sama. Dari unggas yang dibeli, sebanyak dua ekor unggas (1.12%) postif virus AI. Kedua ekor unggas tersebut merupakan burung Kacamata (Zosterops palpebrosus, famili Zostropidae). Seluruh sampel feses maupun unggas dibeli yang positif dikoleksi dari ordo Passeriformis. Namun berdasarkan uji rRT-PCR tidak ada sampel yang positif H5.

Sebanyak 163 sampel serum dikoleksi dari 178 unggas yang dibeli di Pasar Burung Pramuka. Berdasarkan uji HI menggunakan antigen A/Legok/IPBSGT/1/2004 (H5N1) maupun A/Ck/West Java/PWT-Wij/2006 (H5N1), sebanyak tujuh dari 163 unggas (4.29%) positif memiliki antibodi terhadap AI (H5). Terdapat perbedaan titer HI antara kedua antigen tersebut. Dengan menggunakan antigen A/Legok/IPB-SGT/1/2004 (H5N1), terdapat dua sampel yang positif kuat dengan titer ≥ 24, sedangkan lima lainnya positif lemah dengan titer < 24. Hasil positif kuat berdasarkan uji HI diperoleh dari dua ekor burung kutilang (Pycnonotus aurigaster, famili Pycnotidae). Sedangkan hasil positif lemah diperoleh dari masing-masing satu ekor angsa (Cygnus sp., famili Anatidae), bebek (Anas sp., famili Anatidae), burung emprit/bondol haji (Lonchura maja, famili Ploceidae), tekukur (Streptopelia chinensis, famili Columbidae), dan kruwok (Nyctorax nyctorax¸ famili Ardeidae). Dengan menggunakan antigen A/Ck/West Java/PWT-Wij/2006 (H5N1), rata-rata titer HI yang diperoleh lebih tinggi, yakni lima ekor unggas positif kuat (emprit, angsa, kruwok dan dua ekor kutilang), sedangkan dua ekor unggas (bebek dan tekukur) positif lemah.

Unggas di Pasar Burung Pramuka, Jakarta yang terinfeksi AI umumnya berasal dari pulau Jawa, namun ada pula unggas yang diimpor. Virus AI terdeteksi pada kelompok burung hias atau kicauan, sedangkan antibodi AI (H5) terdeteksi pada kelompok unggas air, unggas lahan basah, dan burung hias atau kicauan. Tidak ada pengaruh nyata antara kejadian AI dengan cuaca walaupun terjadi peningkatan kasus AI di musim pancaroba.

Penelitian ini menambah informasi mengenai AI pada unggas yang dijual di Pasar Burung. Diperlukan penelitian lebih lanjut untuk mengetahui subtipe virus AI selain H5 pada unggas maupun hewan lain yang dijual di Pasar Burung Pramuka, Jakarta.

Kata kunci: Avian influenza, pasar burung, realtime RT-PCR, uji hemaglutinasi inhibisi, unggas.

SUMMARY

Avian Influenza (AI) which is caused by influenzavirus A of the family Orthomyxoviridae cause an important impact, including in health, social and economic sectors. AI viruses (AIV) can infect various birds and mammals, therefore bird market as a meeting place for human and poultry can potentially transmit AI virus among birds or from birds to human. Indonesia is a habitat of various bird species; therefore research about AIV on bird, especially which are sold in the Pramuka Bird Market, as the biggest bird market in Jakarta, is urgently needed.

In general, the aim of this study was to examine the presence of AIV in various bird species sold in Pramuka Bird Market, Jakarta. Specifically, the aims of this study were: (1) to assess the presence of H5 AI virus in oropharyngeal swab, cloacal swab, and fecal samples of various bird species using real time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR); (2) to detect the presence of antibodies against AIV (H5) in various bird species using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, and (3) to determine the relationship among weather and geographic origin of birds to the prevalence of AIV.

During April until September 2011, a number of 862 field samples from 28 families and 96 bird species were collected in Pramuka Bird Market, Jakarta. These field samples consisted of 649 fecal samples, 114 cloacal swab samples, and 99 oropharyngeal swab samples. As many as 7 of 649 faecal samples (1.08%) were positive AI. However, none cloacal or oropharyngel swab were positive AI. Positive fecal samples were detected in four bird species, which are three magpierobins (Copsychus saularis, family Turdidae), two white-eyes (Zosterops palpebrosus, family Zostropidae), a yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier, family Pycnotidae), and a robin (Leiothrix lutea, family Sylviidae).

In addition to field samples, during April until September 2011, 178 birds from 21 families and 47 species were purchased from the same bird market. From 178 birds, two birds (1.12%), which were two white-eyes (Zosterops palpebrosus, family Zostropidae), were positive AI. The whole positive samples were from Passeriformis order. However, based on rRT-PCR result, there were no H5 positive samples.

A number of 163 serum samples were collected from 178 purchased birds from Pramuka Bird Market. Based on HI test using antigen A/Legok/IPBSGT/1/2004 (H5N1) and A/Ck/West Java/PWT-Wij/2006 (H5N1), seven of 163 birds (4.29%) had positive antibodies to AI. There were differences in HI titers between the two antigens. By using A/Legok/IPB-SGT/1/2004 (H5N1) antigen, two sample were strongly positive (titers ≥ 24), while the other five samples were weakly positive (titers <24). Strongly positive results were obtained from two scooty-headed bulbul (Pycnonotus aurigaster, family Pycnotidae). While the weakly positive results were obtained from a swan (Cygnus sp., family Anatidae), a duck (Anas sp., family Anatidae), a munia (Lonchura maja, family Ploceidae), a spotted-dove (Streptopelia chinensis, family Columbidae), and a black-crowned ivnight heron (Nyctorax nyctorax, family Ardeidae). By using A/Ck/West Java/PWT-Wij/2006 (H5N1) antigen, the average HI titer obtained was higher. Five samples were strongly positive (Lonchura maja, Cygnus sp., Nyctorax nyctorax, and two Pycnonotus aurigaster), while samples from Anas sp. and Streptopelia chinensis were weakly positive.

Most of the positive samples were from birds caught in Java Island, but beside that there was also one imported bird. Avian influenza virus were detected in singing birds, whereas the antibody against AI (H5) were detected in waterfowl, wetland birds, and singing birds. There was no significant relationship between the prevalence of AI and weather, despite an increase in AI cases during the transition season. Results of this study provide important information about the prevalence of AI virus on birds sold in Bird Market, Jakarta. Further research is needed to determine the subtype other than H5 AI virus in birds and other animals sold in Pramuka Bird Market, Jakarta.

Keywords: Avian influenza, bird, bird market, heamagglutination inhibition test, realtime RT-PCR.

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